варианты: 1 Самообразование 2 Самонаправление в обучении

Mark K. Smith, “Self-direction in learning”, public translation into English from English More about this translation.

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Self-direction in learning

1 Самообразование
2 Самонаправление в обучении

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Self-direction in learning. Many books and articles about lifelong learning talk glibly about self direction. Too often this idea is seen as unproblematic – an obvious good. But things are not quite as they seem.

Contents: Tough – self education and learning projects · product and process · Knowles – process and the rationale for self-directed learning · Tough – self education and learning projects · some problems · further reading

‘The most important attitude that can be formed’, wrote John Dewey, ‘is that of the desire to go on learning’. Here we explore some of the key issues around the idea of self-direction in learning. We also look at the contribution of Alan Tough and Malcolm Knowles – two of the key North American promoters of self directed learning and associated notions.

Tough: self education and learning projects

Various studies indicate that learning projects are undertaken by individuals outside of formal education provision on a substantial scale. For example a survey of adult learning undertaken by Sargant in the UK revealed that one in six people are trying to learn about or teach themselves something informally – at home, at work, or elsewhere (1991: 15) (see participation in learning). In other words , what we have here is a substantial body of people engaged in the process of what might be described as self-directed learning.

One of the key points of reference concerning such learning has been the work of Alan Tough. In a famous American study (1967) he initially described this process as ‘self-teaching’. In such circumstances, learners assumed responsibility for planning and directing the course of study. As he developed his approach Tough tended to conceptualise his approach in terms of learning projects. Having established the existence of self-learning projects to his own satisfaction, Tough then went on to describe what he saw as the 13 key stepped, decision points about choosing what, where and how to learn. He assumed that adults have a sound range of abilities for planning and guiding their learning. (See lifelong learning).

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